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(Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, Civil Service Technical Guild Collection.)

The cutting edge of the shield used by sandhogs constructing a subway tunnel under the East River, 1918

Sandhogs--the miners who work on underground or underwater tunnels, trace their union back to the first strike against dangerous conditions during the building of the Brooklyn Bridge, May 8, 1972.

Audio clip: Ed Cross, son of an African American father and a Danish mother, worked as a sandhog, and was later elected secretary-treasurer of Tunnel Workers Local 147. Listen >>


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